Bine ati venit!

Cautati informatii despre Franta, Anglia, Spania?Ati venit in locul potrivit! Acesta este un site specializat pe referate din diferite domenii(traditii,istorie,cultura,tehnica) in limbile Franceza, Engleza,Spaniola.
Si daca tot treceti pe aici, dati si un click pe reclame, poate chiar veti gasi ceva interesant!!!!

NOU!!! De acum puteti gasi aici programare c++, cursuri de economie, contabilitate, birotica si psihologie!!!!

miercuri, 23 ianuarie 2008

The Union Flag History

The Union Flag, or Union Jack, is the national flag of the United Kingdom and it is so called because it embodies the emblems of the three countries united under one Sovereign - the kingdoms of England and Wales, of Scotland and of Ireland (although since 1921 only Northern Ireland has been part of the United Kingdom). The term Union Jack possibly dates from Queen Anne's time (reigned 1702-14), but its origin is uncertain. It may come from the 'jack-et' of the English or Scottish soldiers; or from the name of James I who originated the first union in 1603, in either its Latin or French form Jacobus or Jacques; or, as 'jack' once meant small, the name may be derived from a royal proclamation issued by Charles II that the Union Flag should be flown only by ships of the Royal Navy as a jack, (a small flag at the bowsprit). The flag consists of three heraldic crosses: The cross of St George, patron saint of England since the 1270's, is a red cross on a white ground. It was the national flag of England until James I succeeded to the throne in 1603, after which it was combined in 1606 with the crosses of St. Andrew and St. Patrick; The cross saltire of St Andrew, patron saint of Scotland, is a diagonal white cross on a blue ground.
The cross saltire of St Patrick, patron saint of Ireland, is a diagonal red cross on a white ground. This was combined with the previous Union Flag of St George and St Andrew, after the Act of Union of Ireland with England (and Wales) and Scotland on 1 January 1801, to create the Union Flag that has been flown ever since.
The Welsh dragon does not appear on the Union Flag. This is because when the first Union Flag was created in 1606, the Principality of Wales by that time was already united with England and was no longer a separate principality.
The Union Flag was originally a royal flag (when the present design was made official in 1801, it was ordered to be flown on all the King's forts and castles, but not elsewhere); it is today flown above Buckingham Palace, Windsor Castle and Sandringham when the Queen is not in residence. The Royal Arms of Scotland (“Lion Rampant”) is flown at the Palace of Holyroodhouse and Balmoral when The Queen is not in residence. On news of a Royal death, the Union Flag (or the Royal Arms of Scotland [Lion Rampant] where appropriate) will be flown at half-mast. The Royal Standard is never flown at half mast, as the Sovereign never dies (the new Monarch immediately succeeds his or her predecessor).
The flying of the Union Flag on public buildings is decided by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport at the Queen's command.
The Union Flag has particular significance to the Armed Forces; therefore it is flied during the annual Trooping the Colour ceremony at Horse Guards Parade on the Sovereign's official birthday, when The Queen as Colonel-in-Chief of each of the five regiments of Foot Guards takes the salute.
The flag is also flown on St David's Day (Wales), St George's Day (England), St Andrew's Day (Scotland), and St Patrick's Day (Northern Ireland)
In the Royal Navy, flags and ensigns assumed the same importance as standards and colours in the Army. Until 1864, fleets were organised into White, Red and Blue squadrons, but in that year Queen Victoria ordered that the White Ensign - the red cross of St George with the Union Flag in the top left-hand corner - should be carried by all ships of the Royal Navy.
The Union Flag is flown on government buildings on days marking the birthdays of members of the Royal family, Commonwealth Day, Coronation Day, as well as on the Queen's official birthday.


In English, all the names for the days of the week come from the Anglo-Saxon tradition (of Germanic inspiration), while the names of the months are derived from Latin (dating back to the Roman conquest).

In some cultures, the beginning of a new day was considered to be at sunset. The sacred Jewish year and the Christian eve of feast-days were equally important. Old expressions related to “a week” (“se’en-night”- archaic, no longer used) and “two weeks” (“fort’night”) in the Anglo-Saxon culture (ancient Britons) speak of the “night”. The ancient Greek, the Mohammedans, the Chinese also start the day at sunset.
In other cultures (Syrians, Persians, Modern Greek) the day begins at sunrise.
Ancient Egyptians considered that each day began at noon (because they were worshippers of the Sun God Ra). Modern astronomers kept this tradition.
The day began at midnight for the Romans. In modern times, the English, French, Dutch, Germans, Spaniards, Portuguese and Americans also consider midnight as the beginning of the day.

SUNDAY – was considered the first day of the week. In Old English it was called Sunnerdaeg, and it was dedicated to the Sun god.
MONDAY – the second day of the week (“day of the Moon” or Monandaeg in Anglo-Saxon)
Monday was observed as a non-working day by various guilds (shoemakers etc.). St. Monday or St. Lundi is the facetious (mocking) name given to it by others
TUESDAY – comes from the name of Tiu (or Tiw, or Tyr) who, in Scandinavian mythology, was the son of Odin and brother of Thor. In Roman mythology he can be identified with Mars, the god of war (whereby the name of this day in French is “mardi”). Etymologists consider that Tiu can be equated with the Greek major god Zeus (in Latin = Deus; in Sanskrit = devas)
WEDNESDAY – the fourth day of the week was originally “Woden’s Day” (or “Odin’s Day”), called by the French “mercredi” because they equal it to the day of god Mercury.
The Persians regard this as a “red-letter day” (= a lucky day, usually a festival took place – Christian priests adopted this writing for the calendar) because the Moon was created in the fourth day as written in the book of Genesis
THURSDAY – was the day of the god Thor (called by the French “jeudi” after Jove = Jupiter, who was also a god of the thunder, just like Thor). In the old times, Thursday was also called “Thunderday”.
FRIDAY – was the sixth day of the week. In ancient Rome it was called dies Veneris (the day dedicated to Venus) and this was the etymology of “vendredi” in French. The nearest equivalent to Venus among the Northern goddesses was Frigg (or Freyja). The form in Old English was “frige dag”. Freyja was the wife of Odin, goddess of love, marriage and of the dead and she always wore a necklace called Brisingamen. When Odin left her she cried with golden tears.
The Norsemen considered Friday as the luckiest day in the week and that is why it was the best day for weddings and other celebrations. With Christian religion, things changed because Friday was the day when Christ was crucified.
For Mohammedans, Friday is the equivalent of Sabbath (because they say Adam was created on a Friday and, also on a Friday, Adam and Eve ate the forbidden apple; they also died on a Friday).
Buddhists and Brahmins consider it unlucky.
In England, there is a saying according to which “A Friday moon brings foul weather”, but it is not unlucky to be born on a Friday, because “Friday’s child is loving and giving”.
It is considered unlucky for ships to put to sea on a Friday (however, this is what Columbus did in 1492 … and he discovered America!)
In mediaeval times, condemned criminals were executed on Fridays so it was also called “Hanging day”.
Friday 13th – is particularly unlucky. Originally, it is said to come from an old Scandinavian tradition – at a banquet in Walhalla, Loki intruded, he was the 13th guest and then Balder (son of Odin, god of Light) was killed.
Paraskevi-dekatria-phobia = the irrational fear of Friday the 13th (from Greek)
SATURDAY – was the seventh day of the week. In Old Anglo-Saxon it was called Saeterdaeg, adapted from the Latin Saturni dies (the day dedicated to the worship of Saturn). There was also a festival (Saturnalia) that lasted for 7 days, starting with the 19th of December – a time of freedom from any restraint, no business took place, law courts were suspended, schools were closed, no criminals were punished. The character of the “fool” /“buffoon” seems to have inspired the Romans’ ill-treatment (“Passions”) of Jesus on Crucifixion day.


A week of Sundays – meaning a long time, an indefinite period
Week-work – this goes back to the feudalist period, when a lord’s land was worked by tenants (usually 3 days a week compulsory work) (serfdom).
He has had his day – meaning that his youth days are over
Today a man, tomorrow a mouse – meaning that one day you can have it all, then the next day you can lose all you have
To lose the day – to lose a battle, to be defeated (from the mediaeval times, but today it is still used metaphorically)
To win / gain the day – it is its opposite, meaning that you have been successful
Daylight Saving – the idea of changing the official time during summer seems to have been put forward by Benjamin Franklin after the American States won their independence. But the idea was finally adopted only in 1916 in Germany, closely followed by England because of wartime restrictions. In Britain it became permanent by an Act of 1925 when it received the name of Summer Time. It began the 3rd Saturday in April (unless that was the Easter Day) and ended on the day following the first Saturday in October. Since 1961 it has been extended by 6 weeks (beginning in March and ending in October).
To let daylight into someone – to pierce a person with a sword or bullet
Dayspring (poetical) – the dawn
De die in diem – from day to day continuously, until the business is completed
The-swing-it-till-Monday-basket – the nickname for things that can be postponed until Monday
When three Thursdays come together – never
Not in a Month of Sundays – never
A Sunday Saint – someone who strictly observes all religious ordinances only on Sundays


JANUARY – it was the month dedicated by Romans to the god Janus (the god who kept the gate of Heaven – the guardian of gates and doors) who presided the entrance into the year and, having two faces, could look both forward and backward in time. The doors of temples dedicated to Janus were open during war and closed in times of peace.
The Dutch called this month “Lauwmaand” (=frosty-month).
The Saxons called it Wulf-monath, because wolves were very dangerous at that time of the year due to the fact that food was generally very scarce. After the introduction of Christianity, this month was given the name of Se aeftera geola (“The after-yule”, meaning after Christmas) or Forma monath (=the first month).
After the French Revolutions, the French called this first month Nivôse (= the snow-month) and it started on 21/22/23 December, lasting until 20/21/22 January.
[YULE (in Old English “gēol”) came from the Icelandish “jǒl” which was the name for a heathen festival at the winter solstice.]

FEBRUARY – was the month of purification for the ancient Romans (Februo = I purify by sacrifice = catharsis). Hence, the 2nd of Feb. is the day of Purification of the Blessed Virgin.
The Anglo-Saxons called this month “Sprout-kale” from the sprouting of kale (=cabbage). The French revolutionaries called it “Pluviôse” (rainy month).
In Scotland, tradition has it that February “borrowed” 3 days from January (12-13-14). If these are stormy, the rest of the year will have good weather; if they are fine, the rest will be marked by bad weather.

MARCH – the name comes from the Roman god of war Mars. The Old Dutch called it “Lentmaand” (and this is where the term LENT comes from, since March is always in Lent).
The Saxons called it Hreth-monath / Hlyd-monath (=the rough month, because there were always cold winds in this month). The French Republicans called it Ventôse (=windy) and it lasted between 20 February – 20 March.
Anglo-Saxon tradition has it that the last 3 days in March were “borrowed days” (from the month of April). There is even a proverb that says “March borrows 3 days of April, and they are ill!” (=cold, rainy, windy).

APRIL – was the “opening month” (from Latin “aprire”), because trees unfold, all nature opens with new life. The French Revolutionaries called it “Germinal” (time of budding) – 21 March – 19 April.
April fool (Poisson d’avril in French; Gowk in Scots, meaning cuckoo). 25 March used to be the New Year’s Day, festivities usually lasted for 8 days so April 1st was the culminating point in the celebrations, as well as their ending point. The term possibly comes from Roman tradition (Cerealia, a celebration held at the beginning of April. Proserpina was taken by god Pluto into the underworld and her mother Ceres, goddess of cereals, heard her screams and tried to find her, but her search was “a fool’s errand” – in vain).

MAY – The Anglo-Saxons called this month Thrimilce (because cows could be milked three times a day). The modern name seems to come from Latin (Maia being the goddess of growth and increase – from multus-maior-maximus).
In Dutch it was called Bloumaand (the month of blossoms).
The French Revolutionaries called it Floréal (the time of flowers) – 20 April – 20 May.
Mayday – the first of May – a time for heathen celebrations – electing a May Queen, dancing around a Maypole, lighting bonfires (nature worship).
Very tall, ugly women are sometimes called “maypoles”.

JUNE – is the sixth month of the year. It took its name from the Roman “Junius” the term describing young people. It could also come from Juno, queen of heaven, sister and wife of Jupiter.
The Old Dutch called it Zomer-maand (=summer-month). The Anglo-Saxons called it Sere-monath (=dry-month) and Lida aerra (=joy-time).
The French Revolutionaries called it Prairial (prairie = plain, meadow) – 20 May – 18 June.
Marriages in June are said to be very lucky (old Roman superstition related to the June calends, as Juno was the protector of women from birth to death).

JULY – is the 7th month. It was named “Iulius” by Marc Anthony in honour of Julius Caesar. It was formerly called Quintilis (the 5th). Until the 18th century it was pronounced [dzúli].
The Old Dutch called it Hooy-maand (=hay-month). The Old Saxons called it Maedd-Monath (the cattle were brought into the meadows to feed) or Lida aeftevr (the second mild or genial month).
The French Revolutionaries called it Messidor (harvest month) – June 19 – July 18.

AUGUST – Initially called Sextilis (the 6th month from March when the year began) it was renamed by Octavius Augustus in honour of himself (he lived between 63 BC – 14 AD and renamed this month in 8 AD) when he became the first Roman emperor. This was “his lucky month”.
Its old Dutch name was Oostmaand (= harvest month). The old Saxons called it Weodmonath (“weed-month” but weed referred to vegetation in general). The French called it Thermidor (=hot month) – 19 July – 17 August.

SEPTEMBER – was the 7th month of the Roman year that started in March. The Old Dutch called it Herst-maand (meaning the “autumn month) while the old Saxons called it Gerst-monath (barley month) or Haefest-monath. When Christianity became official religion on the main island, they changed the name into Halig-monath (=Holy month, because it included the Nativity of the Virgin Mary on the 8th, the Holy Cross day on the 14th and St. Michael’s day on the 29th).
The French republicans called it Fructidor (the fruit-month) – 18 August – 16 September.
OCTOBER – was the 8th month of the ancient Roman calendar. The Old Dutch called it Wynmaand and in Old English the equivalent was Winmonath (wine-month, or the time of the vintage). It also bore the name of Winter-fylleth (winter full moon). The French revolutionaries called it Vendémiaire (also “time of vintage) – 22 September – 21 October.
NOVEMBER – was the 9th month in the Roman calendar. The Old Dutch name was Slaght-maand (=slaughter-month) because cattle were slain and salted down for winter time. The Old Saxon name was Wind-monath (wind-month) and it was the time when fishermen brought their boats ashore until the next spring. The Saxons also called it Blot-monath (=blood month), an equivalent of the Ditch name.
The French republicans called it Brumaire (fog-month) – 23 October – 21 November.

DECEMBER – was the 10th month in the initial Roman calendar. It was the time of the Saturnalia.
Etymological dictionaries
The Wordsworth Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, 1994 edition, Wordsworth Reference books

marți, 22 ianuarie 2008

Prieteni falsi franceza/engleza

False friends/Faux amis

Abandon vs Abandon

Abandon is a noun that means abandonment, desertion, neglect, or giving up. It can also mean abandon, especially with a verb: danser avec abandon - to dance with abandon. Abandonner = to abandon.
Abandon = abandon.

Habileté vs Ability

Habileté refers to a skill, cleverness, a talent, or a skillful move.
Ability is a similar but weaker term, translatable by une aptitude, une capacité, or une compétence.

Abus vs Abuse

Abus can mean abuse, excess, or injustice.
Abuse = abus, while verbal abuse is des injures or insultes.

Abuser vs Abuse

Abuser means to exploit, abuse, take advantage of, deceive, or mislead. S'abuser means to be mistaken or to delude oneself.
Abuse can be translated by abuser, injurier, insulter, or maltraiter.

Accéder vs Accede

Accéder means to reach, attain, get to, access.
Accede has three different meanings. (1) to agree/accept: agréer, accepter. (2) to take on a new position: entrer en possession/fonction. (3) to join: adhérer, se joindre.

Accidenté vs Accidental

Accidenté can be an adjective: hilly, undulating, or damaged - or a noun: casualty, injured person. Accidenter means to injure or damage.
Accidental means accidentel (bad) or fortuit (good).

Achèvement vs Achievement

Achèvement refers to the completion or culmination of something.
Achievement has a more positive sense of attaining something that was sought after: exploit, réussite, accomplissement.

Achever vs Achieve

Achever usually means to finish, end, complete, reach. It can also be more figurative: to finish off, destroy, kill.
Achieve = accomplir, réaliser, atteindre.

Acompte vs Account

Acompte refers to a deposit, down payment, or installment.
Account = un compte.

Action vs Action

Action can mean action as well as act or a share of stock.
Action = action or effet.

Actuellement vs Actually

Actuellement means "at the present time," and should be translated as currently or right now. Je travaille actuellement - I am currently working. A related word is actuel, which means present or current: le problème actuel - the current/present problem.
Actually means "in fact" and should be translated as en fait or à vrai dire. Actually, I don't know him - En fait, je ne le connais pas. Actual means real or true, and depending on the context can be translated as réel, véritable, positif, or concret : The actual value - la valeur réelle.

Adepte vs Adept

Adepte is a noun: follower or enthusiast.
Adept is an adjective: compétent or expert.

Addition vs Addition

Addition can refer to addition, a sum, or a restaurant check or bill.
Addition = une addition, une augmentation, or un surcroît.

Ado vs Ado

Ado is an apocope of adolescent - teen or teenager.
Ado is a somewhat rare word that is equivalent to agitation or bruit (figuratively).

Adresse vs Address

Adresse can refer to a mailing, email, or spoken address or to deftness, skill, or dexterity.
Address = une adresse or un discours.

Affaire vs Affair

Affaire can mean business, matter, deal, transaction, or scandal.
Affair is the equivalent of affaire only in the sense of an event or concern. A love affair is une liaison, une affaire d'amour, or une aventure amoureuse.

Affluence vs Affluence

Une affluence is a crowd of people: Il y avait une affluence attendant à la porte - There were crowds waiting at the door.
Affluence indicates a lot of something (usually wealth): There's an affluence of information here - Il y a une abondance d'information ici. His affluence is obvious - Sa richesse est évidente.

Agenda vs Agenda

Agenda refers to a datebook.
Agenda means l'ordre du jour or le programme.

Agonie vs Agony

Agonie refers to death pangs or mortal agony, while Agony means severe physical or mental pain, but not necessarily just this side of death: angoisse, supplice.

Agrément vs Agreement

Agrément refers to charm, attractiveness, or pleasantness.
Agreement = accord or harmonie.
Aimer vs Aim

Aimer means to like or to love.
Aim can be a noun - but, visées - or a verb - braquer, pointer, viser.

Allée vs Alley

Allée is a generic term for any sort of road or path: lane, path, avenue, driveway, etc. It can also refer to an aisle.
Alley = une ruelle.

Allure vs Allure

Allure normally refers to speed or pace: rouler à toute allure - to drive at full speed. It can also refer to an appearance or look. Allures refers to behavior or ways.
Allure indicates charm or attrait.

Altérer vs Alter

Altérer can mean alter, but it nearly always has a negative connotation: distort, falsify, tamper with, spoil, debase.
Alter = changer, modifier, transformer, etc.

Amateur vs Amateur

Amateur is a semi-false cognate. It can mean amateur in the sense of non-professional, but it can also mean a lover of something: un amateur d'art - an art lover.
Amateur refers to someone who dabbles in a trade or activity: an amateur photographer: un amateur de photographie.

Amitié vs Amity

Amitié is the generic French word for friendship, while Amity is used more specifically to mean peaceful relations between nations - concorde or bons rapports.

Ancien vs Ancient

Ancien can mean old in the sense of not young as well as in the sense of former: mon ancien professeur - my old (former) teacher, mon professeur ancien - my old (aged) teacher. Learn more about adjectives.
Ancient means antique or très vieux.

Antique vs Antique

Antique as an adjective means antique or ancient. As a noun, it refers to antiquity or classical art/style.
Antique means the same an adjective, but as a noun it refers to une antiquité, un objet d'art ancien, or un meuble ancien.

Apologie vs Apology

Apologie has three different meanings. The original meaning of defense or plea is related to the judiciary meaning of vindication or justification. The current and most common meaning is praise.
Apology = les excuses.

Appareil vs Apparel

Appareil is an apparatus, device, or appliance.
Apparel is an out-dated term for clothing: habillement.

Argument vs Argument

Argument is a semi-false cognate. It means argument in the sense of a mathematical or philosophical argument. Also: argument massue - sledgehammer blow; argument publicitaire - advertising claim; argument de vente - selling point.
Argument is une discussion, une conversation, un débat, or une dispute.

Arriver vs Arrive

Arriver can mean to arrive or to happen, while arriver à + verb means to succeed in doing or to manage to do something.
Arrive is translated by arriver.

Arroser vs Arose

Arroser means to water or spray.
Arose is the past participle of arise: survenir, se présenter, s'élever.

Assistance vs Assistance

Assistance is a semi-false cognate. Its primary meaning is audience.
Assistance indicates help or aid. Assister vs Assist

Assister à nearly always means to attend something: J'ai assisté à la conférence - I attended (went to) the conference.
Assist means to help or aid someone or something: I assisted the woman into the building - J'ai aidé la dame à entrer l'immeuble.

Assumer vs Assume

Assumer only means to assume in the sense of taking on responsibility or assuming control. It also means to hold a job or fulfill a role.
Assume is a semi-false cognate. In addition to assumer, it can also mean supposer or présumer.

Assurance vs Assurance

Assurance refers to self-confidence or insurance in addition to assurance.
Assurance means assurance or conviction.

Attendre vs Attend

Attendre à means to wait for: Nous avons attendu pendant deux heures - We waited for two hours.
Attend is translated by assister (see above): I attended the conference - J'ai assisté à la conférence.

Audience vs Audience

Audience is a semi-false cognate. In addition to the meaning of the English word, it can signify: Votre audience, s'il vous plaît - Your attention, please. Ce projet a un large audience - This project has a lot of attention. Donner audience à quelqu'un - To meet with / listen to someone. Audience publique - A public meeting.
Audience is a group of spectators or listeners.

Avertissement vs Advertisement

Avertissement is a warning or caution, from the verb avertir - to warn.
Advertisement is une publicité, une réclame, or un spot publicitaire.

Bachelier vs Bachelor

Bachelier refers to a person who has passed the bac. Feminine - une bachelière.
Bachelor = un célibataire

Bail vs Bail

Bail is a lease; the plural is Baux.
Bail is une caution, on bail is sous caution.

Balance vs Balance

Balance is a pair of scales or weighing machine. It can also refer to an economic balance.
Balance can be all of the above, plus équilibre or aplomb.

Ballot vs Ballot

Ballot means a bundle or package while Ballot refers to a bulletin de vote (the paper upon which one votes) or a scrutin (the method of voting).

Basque vs Basque

Basque refers to the tails of a tuxedo jacket. In both French and English, Basque also refers to Basque country as well as its people and language.
Basque = une guêpière.

Bât vs Bat

Bât is a packsaddle. It's also found in the figurative expression C'est là où le bât blesse - There's the rub.
Bat is une chauve-souris, une batte, or une raquette.

Batterie vs Battery

Batterie is a semi-false cognate. It is equivalent to the English word in all senses, but it can also refer to a set of drums or the percussion instruments in a band.
Battery refers to an electrical device that provides power as well as military weapons: a battery of artillery - une batterie de canons.

Biais vs Bias

Biais is a general term for way or means, and can also mean angle in the sense of looking at an issue from a particular angle. Par le biais de - through, by means of. Le biais = bias only when referring to fabric (coupé dans le biais - cut on the bias).
Bias = tendance, inclination, penchant, préjugé.

Bigot vs Bigot

Bigot as an adjective means sanctimonious or holier-than-thou. As a noun = person who is sanctimonious or holier-than-thou.
Bigot is equivalent to fanatique or sectaire.

Black vs Black

Black is an informal noun/adjective for black people: un/e black - a black person, la musique black - black music.
Black = noir.

Blanc vs Blank

Blanc is a semi-false cognate. It is usually the French word for the color white but can in some instances be translated by blank: une feuille blanche - a blank sheet of paper.
Blank is an adjective meaning blanc, vierge, or vide.

Blesser vs Bless

Blesser means to wound, injure, or offend.
Bless means bénir.

Blinder vs Blinder/Blind

Blinder means to armor or to shore up. Informally, it means to harden or make immune. Familiarly, it means to get drunk.
Blinder is une oeillère. Blind means aveugle.

Bond vs Bond

Bond refers to a leap or jump. Bondir - to jump.
Bond can mean un engagement, une obligation, or un lien. To bond - coller.

Bout vs Bout

Bout means end, tip, or bit.
Bout refers to une crise (de rheumatisme) or un combat.

Bras vs Bras

Bras is an arm.
Bras is the plural of bra - soutien-gorge.

Brave vs Brave

Brave means brave when it follows the noun it modifies, but good or decent when it precedes it.
Position of adjectives
Brave = brave or, more commonly, courageux.

Bribe vs Bribe

Bribe refers to a bit or scrap of something.
Bribe as a noun is un pot-de-vin, to bribe = acheter (le silence de) quelqu'un, suborner, soudoyer.

Bride vs Bride

Une bride refers to a bridle.
Bride is une mariée.

Bureau vs Bureau

Bureau is a semi-false cognate. It can refer to a desk or an office, as well as a department: Bureau européen de l'environnement - European Environment Office.
Bureau can also mean a certain department, especially in government. In British English, a bureau has the same sense of desk as in French, but in American English a bureau is a chest of drawers: commode.

Caméra vs Camera

Caméra is a movie camera.
Camera = un appareil photo.

Canal vs Canal

Canal can refer to a canal, a channel, or an intermediary.
Canal = un canal or un conduit.

Candide vs Candid

Candide means naïve or ingenuous; Candid means open or frank: franc, sincère.

Car vs Car

Car is most often used as a conjunction: because or for. As a noun, it refers to a coach or bus.
Car is une voiture.

Caractère vs Character

Caractère refers only to the character or temperament of a person or thing: Cette maison a du caractère - This house has character.
Character can mean nature/temperament: Education develops character - L'éducation développe le caractère, as well as a fictional character in a book, play, movie, etc.: Romeo is a famous character - Romeo est un personnage célèbre.

Carton vs Carton

Carton is a semi-false cognate. While it can refer to a box, it can also mean simply cardboard. It can also indicate a target, sketch, or card.
Carton can be a pot, carton, boîte, brick, or cartouche.

Case vs Case

Case is a square or a box (e.g., on a form), a compartment, or a hut.
Case can refer to un cas, un procès, or une valise.
Caution vs Caution

Caution is a financial term; it can mean guarantee, security, bail, or backing.
Caution indicates prudence, circonspection, or avertissement.

Ceinture vs Century

Ceinture is a belt.
Century is un siècle.

Célibataire vs Celibate

Celibataire as a noun means a bachelor, as an adjective can mean celibate or simply single/unmarried.
Celibate is the adjective célibataire.

Cent vs Cent

Cent is the French word for a hundred.
Cent can be figuratively translated by un sou. Literally, it is one hundredth of a dollar.

Chaîne vs Chain

Chaîne can refer to a chain, a production line, a TV channel, or a stereo.
Chain can be a noun - une chaîne, or a verb - enchaîner.

Chair vs Chair

Chair means flesh.
Chair can be une chaise, un fauteuil (armchair), or un siège (seat).

Champ vs Champ

Champ refers to a field (in all senses), while champs = country(side).
Champ is an informal abbreviation for champion - un champion.

Chance vs Chance

Chance means luck.
Chance refers to un hasard, une possibilité, or une occasion.

Charge vs Charge

Charge as a noun can mean burden, load, cargo, responsibility. The verb charger means to load or to charge.
Charge the noun can mean inculpation, accusation, or attaque. The verb to charge can mean accuser or faire payer.

Chat vs Chat

Chat is the French word for cat.
Chat is both a noun and a verb: bavarder/bavardage or discuter/discussion.

Chope vs Chop

Chope is a mug or pint.
Chop can be a noun - une côtelette, un coup - or a verb - trancher, couper, hacher.

Choir vs Choir

Choir is an old-fashioned or archaic verb which means to fall.
Choir indicates un choeur or une chorale.

Christian vs Christian

Christian is a masculine French name (learn more), while
Christian = (un) chrétien (not capitalized).

Chute vs Chute

Chute refers to a fall, loss, collapse, or failure.
Chute is une glissière.

Circulation vs Circulation

Circulation is a semi-false cognate. In addition to the circulation of air, water, etc., it can mean traffic.
Circulation means circulation or propagation.

Client vs Client

Client is a semi-false cognate. In addition to client, it can refer to a customer, patron, or patient.
Client is a client.

Coin vs Coin

Coin refers to a corner in every sense of the English word. It can also be used figuratively to mean area: l'épicier du coin - the local grocer.
Coin is a piece of metal used as money - une pièce de monnaie.

Collège vs College

Collège and lycée both refer to high school: Mon collège a 1 000 élèves - My high school has 1,000 students.
College is translated by université : This college's tuition is very expensive - Les frais de scolarité à cette université sont très élevés.

Combinaison vs Combination

Combinaison is a semi-false cognate. It can refer to a slip, overalls, or a ski-suit.
Combination is equivalent to the French in virtually all senses of the word. In British English, Combination can also refer to un side-car.

Combine vs Combine

Combine is an informal term for a trick or scheme.
Combine can be translated by une association, une corporation, or, in agriculture, une moissoneuse-batteuse. To combine = combiner or joindre.

Comédien vs Comedian

Comédien can refer to any actor, not just a comedian/comedy actor. It can also indicate a sham or show-off.
Comedian is a comédien or comique.

Commander vs Command

Commander is a semi-false cognate. It means to order (a command) as well as to order a meal or goods/services. Une commande is an order.
Command can be translated by commander, ordonner, or exiger. It is also a noun: ordre or commandement.

Comme vs Come

Comme means like or as.
Come is the verb venir.
Comment vs Comment

Comment is an adverb meaning how or what: Comment vas-tu ? - How are you? Comment t'appelles-tu ? - What is your name?
A Comment is une observation or un commentaire.

Commode vs Commode

Commode as an adjective means convenient or handy; as a noun it indicates a chest of drawers.
Commode rarely means a chest of drawers, in American English it usually refers to a toilet: toilettes or cabinets. In British English, it means a special chair with a hole, under which is a chamber pot (normally used by disabled persons): une chaise percée.

Commodité vs Commodity

Commodité means convenience: les commodités de la vie moderne - the conveniences of modern life.
Commodity refers to a product for trade, goods: produit, article, denrée (latter refers only to food).

Complet vs Complete

Complet is an adjective: complete, comprehensive, full, total. The feminine form is complète. It is also the noun for a men's suit.
Complete is an adjective: complet, terminé. It is also a verb: compléter, finir, remplir.

Compréhensif vs Comprehensive

Compréhensif can mean comprehensive as well as understanding or tolerant.
Comprehensive has many meanings: détaillé, complet, étendu, global, or compréhensif.

Compromis vs Compromise(d)

Compromis = a compromise, while the expression compromis de vente refers to a provisional sales agreement. As an adjective (past participle of compromettre), it means compromised in both the positive and negative sense (We have compromised with our friends and Our mission has been compromised).
Compromise refers to un compromis or une transaction. As a verb, it means compromettre, transiger, aboutir à/accepter un compromis.

Con vs Con

Con is a vulgar word that literally refers to female genitalia. It usually means an idiot, or is used as an adjective in the sense of bloody or damned.
Con can be a noun - la frime, une escroquerie, or a verb - duper, escroquer.

Concerner vs Concern(ed)

Concerner is a semi-false cognate. It means to concern only in the sense of to affect or to have to do with: Cela ne vous concerne pas - This doesn't concern/affect you. Thus concerné means affected by, not concerned about something.
Concern is both a noun and a verb. As a verb, it can mean concerner/toucher as well as inquiéter or préoccuper. The noun means rapport, affaire, souci, intérêt, etc.

Concierge vs Concierge

Concierge is a semi-false cognate. In addition to the concierge of a hotel, it can refer to the caretaker of a building or apartment house.
Concierge is a member of hotel staff.

Concret vs Concrete

Concret is an adjective which means concrete (in the sense of real/tangible or made of concrete). Feminine version: concrète.
Concrete can be an adjective or a noun: le béton.

Conducteur vs Conductor

Conducteur is the general French term for a driver. In terms of electricity, it is both a noun - conductor and an adjective - conductive, conducting.
Conductor refers to un contrôleur or un chef d'orchestre.

Conférence vs Conference

Conférence is a lecture or conference.
Conference is une conférence, un congrès, or une assemblée.

Confiance vs Confidence

Confiance can refer to confidence or trust.
Confidence means confiance, while self-confidence is assurance.

Confident vs Confident

Confident is a noun, the French equivalent of confidant - someone you tell all your secrets and private matters.
Confident is an adjective; the French equivalents are confiant, assuré, sûr, and persuadé.

Confortable vs Comfortable

Confortable = comfortable for a place or thing.
Comfortable can also be used for people, but in French this would be translated as à l'aise or bien.

Confus vs Confused

Confus means ashamed, embarrassed, disorganized, or uncertain.
Confused means désorienté, déconcerté, confondu, or embrouillé.

Conseil/Conseiller vs Counsel

Conseil can refer to a hint or piece of advice; a consultant or adviser; or a board, committee, or council. Conseiller means to recommend, advise, or counsel.
Counsel is a noun: une consultation, un conseil, une déliberation, un avocat (in formal English) and a verb: conseiller, recommander.

Consumer vs Consume

Consumer means to consume only as a fire or as ambition consumes.
Consume usually refers to eating or drinking something: consommer.

Contrée vs Country

Contrée refers only to the physical boundaries of a piece of land or a region.
Country can indicate un pays, une patrie, or la campagne.

Contrôle vs Control

Contrôle is a semi-false cognate. It usually refers to an inspection, verification, or test, but it can in some cases indicate self-control or control of a vehicle.
Control indicates power over someone (including oneself) or something.

Corde vs Cord

Corde refers to rope or a string on a musical instrument.
Cord = un cordon.

Corporation vs Corporation

Corporation can refer to a corporate body, guild, or, in general terms, profession.
Corporation is une société commerciale, société à responsabilité limitée, or compagnie commerciale. In the UK, it can also refer to un conseil municipal.

Corps vs Corps

Corps is a semi-false cognate. In addition to a body of people like Corps de la Paix - Peace Corps, corps can mean (human) body or corpse.
Corps refers to un corps of people.

Correspondance vs Correspondence

Correspondance can mean correspondence, conformity, balance, or a travel connection.
Correspondence means correspondance.

Courageux vs Courageous

Courageux can mean courageous, but is also used to mean up to or not lazy: Je ne suis pas courageux - I don't feel up to it; Sois courageux ! - Don't be lazy!
Courageous = courageux.

Course vs Course

la Course means running, une course is a trip, journey, or race.
Course refers to un cours or une route. Of course = bien sûr.

Courtisan vs Courtesan

Courtisan is a courtier or sycophant.
Courtesan is une courtisane.

Crâne vs Crane

Crâne means skull as a noun and gallant as an adjective.
Crane = une grue (both the bird and the machine).

Crayon vs Crayon

Crayon is a pencil.
Crayon translates as un crayon de couleur. The French language uses this expression for both crayon and colored pencil.

Crier vs Cry

Crier means to scream or shout.
Cry as a verb means pleurer; as a noun it is un cri.

Crise vs Crisis

Crise is a semi-false cognate; it has several meanings in addition to the English sense of crisis: une crise d'asthme- an asthma attack, une crise de colère - a fit of anger, une crise économique - an economic slump.
Crisis refers to an extremely serious event: crisis management - gestion de crise.

Crispé vs Crisp

Crispé means tensed or flexed, from the verb crisper.
Crisp is used mainly with food: croquant or croustillant.

Cuisine vs Cuisine

Cuisine is the kitchen or cooking.
Cuisine is just a fancy word for the cooking of a particular region ~ cuisine in French.

Va continua!!!!!!!!

duminică, 20 ianuarie 2008

Examples of cultural preeminence of the English-speaking peoples

1. Monarchy on the British Isles
Indeed, the inhabitants of the British Isles were not the inventors of the monarchy. The term itself comes from old Greek, a language in which mono archon meant “one ruler” (archein = to rule) and defined the ancient type of totalitarian ruler, specific for all ancient cultures. The modern understanding of this term has lost its initial meaning, now referring to the ruler of a country, who passes on the attributes of his/her power to a member of the same family, according to hereditary rules, or by appointment (in less frequent cases – when the Parliament of the respective monarchy decides who should be the next King or Queen). Therefore, most monarchs inherit their title and continue to rule for the rest of their lives.
For the modern person, monarchy is connected to tradition, to a set of somewhat rigid rules which seem to “ignore” the spectacular changes of the modern world. One of them preserves the link (specific mainly for ancient times) between politics and religion: in the European monarchies, for instance, any coronation ceremony is performed by the head of the Church (the Pope, the Archbishop of Canterbury etc.) – thus preserving a long enduring tradition, that of the Roman Empire. In time, and especially in the 16th and 17th centuries, absolute monarchs made great efforts to justify what they considered as their “divine rights” on Earth. Yet, by that time, long fought for rights of nobles and burg citizens alike had concluded with the writing of fundamental documents (constitutions) which limited the monarch’s powers.
When asked about the English monarchy, most people think of William the Conqueror and the mediaeval times. Yet England had had many monarchs before that, during the rule of the Anglo-Saxons. Starting with the 5th century A.D. the Anglo-Saxon kings continued to lead the communities living on that land until 1066, based on a well structured social and political system and a common language which united those communities. Kings were followed on the throne by their eldest son (or daughter) – the system based on cognatic primogeniture, which was preserved throughout the Middle Age and modern times. In other parts of Europe, monarchies followed the rule of the agnatic primogeniture (whereby women were excluded from potential succession – similarly to the Salic law).
The monarchic concept was also exported to various territories which became part of the British colonial Empire. Local rulers became regents (vassals of the British King or Queen) and, though having limited powers due to the presence of British Governors, exerted a totalitarian rule over their own communities.
Today, the British monarchy is one of only ten surviving European monarchies. The role of the monarch has diminished in time, and especially during the 20th century. Queen Elizabeth II, for instance, has limited powers and only a decorative role in the context of British political decisions. Tradition, however, makes her one of the most respected and loved personalities in her country.

2. Political organization (first Parliament)

The political institution of the Parliament originated in England in the Middle Age. But the Anglo-Saxons also had a council of elders whose task was to take the right decisions for the community – the witenagemot [witunúgimot]. In Old English, this means “meeting of counsellors” (witan = counsellors of the Anglo-Saxon King – all of whom belonged to the A-S aristocracy). The Anglo-Saxon witenagemot included representatives of the nobility and religious leaders – the two categories with a major influence in the state. The number of council members varied according to local each king and his decisions; the counsellors had to give their assent in what laws, taxes, defence or negotiations with other princes were concerned. The meetings of the witan were not regular but they took place at any time as chosen by the king for taking decisions in important matters (See for other details).
In the 13th century the kings of Britain gathered the aristocracy and clergy representatives around them under the name of Curia Regis (Royal Court). This gathering laid the foundation for what is now known as the House of Lords. Members of Curia Regis only had executive powers, because all major decisions were taken by the king himself.
In 1265 (during the so-called “Barons’ War”) Simon de Montfort organized a Parliament which included representatives of Anglo-Saxon counties, towns and lesser clergy in an effort to gain the support of middle classes. Thirty years later (1295) Edward I summoned the Model Parliament that included high ranked and lesser clergymen, merchants, two knights from each county, and two representatives from each town in the effort to organize a body that would represent all major social classes, and this type of council remained unchanged for more than 50 years.
However, little by little, the representatives of the clergy withdrew from this Parliament almost completely (only 2 of them were left) but the remaining members gradually built the unitary body that took the name of House of Commons.
By the 15th century the Parliament had lost its administrative and legislative powers, especially due to the fact that the York kings and then the Tudor monarchs were very strong and turned the Parliament into an instrument of their will. However, during the last four centuries, periods of totalitarian rule alternated with times when the Parliament became stronger. The 20th century saw the monarch’s powers reduced to matters of protocol and traditional ritual. Once a year, the monarch speaks in front of the House of Commons (where he/she is only admitted after performing a special ritual – knocking three times on the massive doors) about the state of the nation; the tradition of this speech was established in the 15th century.

3. Major legal documents (Magna Charta 1215)
Also known under the name of “Mother of all Constitutions”, Magna Charta Libertatum, the legal document which acknowledged the rights of English nobles and restricted the totalitarian powers of the king was passed by king John (also known as “Lackland”) in 1215. Since Britain is still a monarchy, Magna Charta is still valid today, not having been replaced by a modern type of constitution. Britain and Israel are the only two countries in the world that do not have a “constitution” (a single representative legal document), but a number of legal documents which, together, stand for such an act.
Magna Carta Libertatum (“The Great Charter of Freedoms”) was issued in 1215, and it is considered the basis for what constitutional British law is today. Historians consider that it largely influenced the US Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Also, it is considered “one of the most important documents in the history of democracy” – Wikipedia).

Reason for being written: disagreements between King John (absolutist monarch, in the tradition of Norman kings) and the English aristocrats (who wanted the king to renounce certain rights and to abide by the law).
Many of its initial clauses were renewed during the late Middle Ages and in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Effects: It limited the power and prerogatives of the King or Queen (but some of these were reinstated during the following centuries).

The Petition of Rights is another key document of the British legal system. It was passed by the English Parliament during Charles I reign (1628).

Reasons for being written: trying unsuccessfully to avoid a civil war, aristocrats aimed to stop arbitrary arrests and imprisonments (“contrary to Magna Carta”), the king’s interference with property rights, the forced loans and the fact that the “habeas corpus” law was not enforced.

Effects: the fact that the King maintained his rights, although he had promised to “look into the abuses”, determined the outburst of the Civil War.

The Bill of Rights (1689) is an act which was passed by the Parliament of England (complete title: An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject and Settling the Succession of the Crown) and which, together with Magna Carta, the Act of Settlement and various other Parliament Acts, is considered one of the basic documents of English constitutional law.
The Bill of Rights is also an important part of the legal system of some Commonwealth states (e.g. New Zealand), and a similar document (called the Claim of Right) is applied in Scotland.

Reason for being written: to assert the citizens’ fundamental rights (e.g. the right to petition the Monarch, the right to bear arms for defence) and to define certain obligations of the monarch (e.g. he/she must always ask for the consent of the Parliament for certain actions of the Crown – for instance, in case of war). Unlike the Bill of Rights of the US, this is only a list of rights referring to the people as represented in the Parliament (only Magna Carta sets out individual rights).

Effects: The first 8 amendments to the US Constitution are based on the English Bill of Rights.

The Act of Settlement (1701) was passed by the English Parliament, being an important legal document for the future of the Royalty.

Reason for being written: in order to settle the succession to the throne in favour of Protestant monarchs.
King William III was a widower and had no children, and according to the existing law the line of succession was limited. The main purpose was to allow the succession to continue in the Protestant line, and to exclude any Catholic claims to the throne.

Effects: no Catholic monarchs in England/Britain since that time.

The Acts of Union (1706/1707 with Scotland, 1800/1801 with Ireland)

Reason for being signed: these acts confirmed the union of Scotland and Ireland respectively, to the Kingdom of England, as an effect of political will.
One of the reasons on the part of the English was to establish the Royal succession along Protestant lines. Also, England worried that a Scottish king might make alliances against England.

Effects: through the Act of Union of 1707, a new state – The Kingdom of Great Britain – was created.
The Parliament of England and that of Scotland were dissolved and a new Parliament emerged – the Parliament of Great Britain, based at Westminster.

In the case of the Act of Union with the Irish (passed 1800/ made effective1801) non-Anglicans had no right to become members of the Parliament (around 90% of the Irish population was thus excluded). The newly emerging state took the name of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

In order to offer larger representational rights to all citizens, in 1829 a Catholic Emancipation Act was passed, allowing Irish Catholics to become members of the Parliament.

4. Break-up with traditional state religion (Henry VIII)
Henry VIII is mostly known for three major reasons: for being an absolute monarch, for breaking away from the dominance of the Pope and Catholicism (thereby setting up a new Christian confession named The Church of England along with the dissolution of all monasteries), as well as for having had six wives (of whom only the last outlived him, the others having had quite dramatic deaths).
See for an extensive presentation of Henry VIII’s life and actions.
The most important event which took place during his reign is the so-called English Reformation, which led to the replacement of Papal supremacy by the Church of England. Documentary sources present the king’s decision as having been motivated primarily by political reasons (all catholic churches and monasteries were very rich and independent from the English monarch, because their leader was the Pope). Catholic communities were very powerful and Catholic counselors exerted their dominance at the Royal Court as well, putting constant pressure on the king. The riches of said churches and monasteries were also considered as an important source for financing various state projects at Henry’s will. The pretext, however, was a more mundane one – the king seemingly wanting to break his marriage with Catherine of Aragon in order to marry a younger lady, Ann Boleyn (in hope of producing a male heir).
The breech with the Pope in Rome took place in the spring of 1534; a year before that the Pope had excommunicated the rebel king (some documentary sources place this event as late as 1338). The immediate result was England’s religious independence, which inspired other European countries to break away from Rome and Catholicism, by embracing Protestant confessions.
The cultural background was appropriate for such a move. It was the time of Martin Luther and of his claim that the Catholic Church had become heretical and no longer upheld the original teachings of Jesus and the Apostles. It was a time when Catholic priests sold indulgencies – papers by which, in exchange for a sum of money, they granted people’s ascent to Heavens and the forgiveness of all sins – thereby gathering large amounts of money which could not be touched by the civil state.
Henry VIII determined the Parliament to pass a number of acts which neutralized any further action by the Catholic Church on the English territory; he himself was declared “the only Supreme Head in Earth of the Church of England”; anyone who challenged this title risked the death penalty for treason.
Being a monarch who had great faith in his own power and authority, Henry VIII also made certain changes in the type of vocabulary used in the Royal Court. He was the first to use the term “Majesty” (inspired from French) as an alternative for the existing “Royal Highness” or “Grace”. In 1535 he proclaimed himself “Henry VIII, by the Grace of God, King of England and France, Defender of the Faith, Lord of Ireland and of the Church of England in Earth Supreme Head”.

5. Religious persecution as reason for colonization (James I – 1603; Pilgrim Fathers - 1620)
1620 is conventionally known as the starting year for massive immigrations to Northern America. Previously, Sir Walter Raleigh's Roanoke colony arrived in Virginia in 1587 (with 120 colonists, of whom only 17 women). That same year (1587), the first American-English baby was born: her name was Virginia Dare, and she was actually named after the region where the settlement had taken place.
The religious reasons were the main cause for trying to leave England in search of a new life, far away from home:
- Puritan religious beliefs were considered intolerable under James I (a Catholic), who came to the throne of England after the death of Elizabeth I, in 1603
- Marriage was considered a civil affair, not a religious sacrament (to be handled by the state). Marriage was a “contract”, mutually agreed by man and woman, for procreation and avoidance of adultery.
- icons and religious symbols were rejected
- rejection of (Catholic) Church hierarchy
- no celebration for Christmas and Easter (celebrations “invented by man to remember Jesus”); no work on Sundays
The period which started with the symbolic year 1620 and ended with the fight for independence of the 1760s is commonly known as the “Colonial era”. Little by little, the colonists’ settlements grouped into the 13 British colonies which later formed the United States.
They had many things in common: the language (English, although Dutch could still be heard in certain parts of the British-held territory – for instance on the Island of Manhattan), various economic interests (e.g. the East India Company, the first private chartered company whose overseas rights were granted by the British Crown, set up a branch in Boston), the British Monarchy tradition and the acknowledged psychological and social force of a strong nation.

6. The concept of “revolution”
The modern concept of “revolution” seems to have its roots in the so-called “Glorious Revolution” of 1688, during the period when England was ruled by the Stuart family.
The 17th century frictions between the totalitarian kings and the Parliament reached their peak during the Civil War which saw Oliver Cromwell assume the power in the state after beheading king Charles I Stuart in 1649. But Cromwell’s new state only lasted until 1658 when, upon his death, the Parliament decided to invite Charles II to restore the monarchy and become king. From a historical point of view, this was the so-called Restoration.
Unfortunately, after having stayed in exile in France all through the period of Cromwell’s rule, Charles II had also learned the authoritarian ruling methods of Louis XIV (the French king who once said: “L’état c’est moi!”), that he was now ready to apply in England. This led to an even stronger discontent between the new king and the Parliament. Here are some of the issues separating the two powers of the state[1]:
- the King is above the law (Charles II) – vs. the King must abide by the law (Parliament);
- the King favoured Catholicism (under French influence), while the Parliament wished to continue the Protestant tradition
- the King saw France as an ally, while the Parliament saw it as the fiercest enemy
- the King wanted to have complete authority over tax collection and personal expenditures, while the Parliament considered that it should have the final decision in this matter
- the King ignored the judicial system and wanted to be the only one to decide punishments, while the Parliament considered that any impeachment should be made according to the law
Upon Charles’ death, his brother James II ascended to the throne, in spite of the Parliament’s protests, which were mainly religious in nature (he was also a Catholic). When the frictions between the King and the Parliament reached a new climax, members of the Parliament contacted James’s daughter Mary Stuart and her husband, William of Orange (the Dutch prince), proposing them to seize the throne. Eventually James II abdicated in 1689 and William of Orange and his wife started a co-reign on the throne of England.
It was the only time in the history of England when this happened. Usually, the wife or husband of the monarch is called a “consort” (“Prince consort” or “Queen consort”).
Legal consequence: in 1689, the Parliament passed the English Bill of Rights, the Toleration Act, and the Mutiny Act that collectively committed the monarchs to respect Parliament and Parliament's laws.
Financial consequence: the constitutional credibility of the English Parliament determined a renewed trust in the English currency. “The Glorious Revolution unleashed a revolution in public finance. The most prominent element was the introduction of long-run borrowing by the government, because such borrowing absolutely relied on the government's fiscal credibility.”[2]
“Credible government debt formed the basis of the Bank of England in 1694 and the core of the London stock market. The combination of these changes has been called the Financial Revolution and was essential for Britain's emergence as a Great Power in the eighteenth century.”[3]

7. The institution of the “Prime Minister” and his “cabinet”
The house of the Hanoverians included four kings by the name of George, and this is why this period is also known as “Georgian Britain”. It started in 1714 (when George I became a king) and ended in 1820 (when George III died). However, the Hanoverian ruling family produced two more monarchs: William IV and Victoria.

The Georgian period is remembered due to a series of facts that marked the cultural and historical development of Britain – as a country and as an empire:

a. GEORGE I (1714 - 1727) did not speak English so he could not rule properly, therefore he appointed trusted politicians to be responsible for all governing activities. These were the first “Prime Ministers” that Britain had and they grouped around them a number of politicians – the future “Cabinet” – to take care of various parts of the governing effort.
b. Due to irresponsible financial manoeuvring (the national debt in his time reached 31 million pounds) the stock market crashed and the government as well as thousands of investors were declared bankrupt. From 1720s on the Bank of England became officially responsible for the finances of the country and British economy became “the best managed” in Europe over the next centuries.
c. During the reign of GEORGE II (1727 – 1760) Prince Charles Stuart marched into England in an attempt to free Scotland (which had become part of Britain in 1707) and take the crown. He was eventually defeated but became a major Scottish hero, along with Mary Stuart.
d. Social stability was at a high level. The system was focused on protecting the landlords’ interests while the exercise of influence worked in the relationships with the other social layers.
e. The British Museum was founded in 1753, first based on the collections of Sir Hans Sloane and Sir Robert Cotton, to which the earls of Oxford added their personal library. The Royal Library, founded by Henry VII also became a part of the British Museum.
f. A “Seven Years War” with France began during his reign (1755) and ended during the reign of George III (1763). The war resulted in new territories being added to the British Empire (in Canada, Florida, Grenada, Senegal and East of the Mississippi River). The Indian sub-continent also became a territory exclusively administered by the British (France had also had interests there). The East India Company became the most important trade company in the area, bringing all kinds of products to Britain.
g. GEORGE III (1760 – 1820) was insane and often proved unfit to rule. During his reign the American colonies broke with the British rule and became independent after the Revolution (1775-1783).
h. Also during his reign Ireland was officially unified with Great Britain (1801), which turned Great Britain into the United Kingdom.
i. Horatio Nelson became a national hero after the naval victories over Napoleon (the Battle of the Nile – 1798 and Trafalgar – 1805). Nelson actually died at Trafalgar. Another national hero was Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington who managed to defeat Napoleon at Waterloo (near Brussels) in 1815.
j. The industrial development led to protests from blue-collar workers, but the new steam-driven machines nevertheless were adopted in all industrial areas due to their efficiency and working speed. This was in fact the period of the EARLY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, and one of the causes for its impact was the approval of laws (Acts) by which landowners introduced improved farming methods and machines, forcing many of the farm workers to move to town, where they became the work force that implemented the Industrial Revolution.
k. In 1810 George III was officially proclaimed “unfit to rule” and his son George was appointed Regent (until 1820). He was an extravagant, heavy drinker, women-lover, impulsive ruler but his passion for expensive, finely decorated architecture resulted in remarkable buildings such as the Brighton Pavilion (on the Channel coast). He finally became king in 1820 and ruled until 1830 as GEORGE IV.
l. During his rule the first regular police force was established in London.
m. The Catholic Emancipation Bill of 1829 gave Catholics the right to vote, become members of Parliament and hold public office. The electoral reform was also on its way.

Upon the death of George IV in 1830 his brother became king William IV as the next in line and in 1837 he was followed by Queen Victoria (1837 – 1901) – a time when the British Empire reached its peak.

8. Human rights – Charters of Freedom (USA)
See for a detailed presentation of the main documents
The fundamental Acts of the USA are the Declaration of Independence (although not a part of the legal system, it the most important symbol of liberty for all Americans), the Constitution (the supreme law) and the Bill of Rights – all of whom are known as the Charters of Freedom. In fact, the American legal system was originally derived from the system of English law, which was in force in the colonies at the time of the Revolution.[4]
The specificity of US law is that, apart from federal laws (inspired from the Constitution, and which are in force in all 50 states) there is also a system of local laws, applicable in each state only. The 50 American states are considered “separate sovereigns”, which have their own constitutions and have the right to pass their own laws, as seen fit by local authorities.
Various attempts have been made, along the years, to unify these state laws, but with only few positive results. Two examples of uniform laws are the Model Penal Code (a project of the American Law Institute) and the Uniform Commercial Code.
The Declaration of Independence (4th July 1776) was voted “the most influential document in American history” (75.9% during a Government survey which took place in 2002).
The original, faded document (engrossed on parchment) is now exhibited in the Rotunda for the Charters of Freedom, at the National Archives in Washington, D.C., along with the originals of the Constitution and of the Bill of Rights, in specially sealed encasements, meant to protect them from decay.
There are also a number of 25 official copies on paper known today – of the 200 initially engraved from a stone plate (20 owned by American institutions, 2 by British institutions and 3 by private owners).
The first section of the body of the Declaration gives evidence of the "long train of abuses and usurpations" heaped upon the colonists by King George III. The second section of the body states that the colonists had appealed in vain to their "British brethren" for a redress of their grievances.
The Declaration concludes that "these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved.”
The Constitution of the United States (1787) is the oldest Federal constitution in existence, and it was conceived by the delegates of 12 of the 13 original states. It is the major legal document of the US. It was ratified by all 13 states (including New York) until late 1788, but with promises of several amendments.
Reason for being written: after 11 years of independence, the new state was confronted with economic depression, social unrest and rivalries between different states. In early 1787, the US Congress asked all 13 states to revise the Articles of Confederation. Following a number of secret meetings (regarding some essential issues, such as: how much power to allow the central government, how many representatives in Congress to allow each state, and how these representatives should be elected - directly by the people or by the state legislators), the US Constitution was ready, and it was intended as an entirely new plan of Government: a central Government made of 3 branches (legislative, executive and judicial) which are thus organised as to balance each other.
The Bill of Rights (presented by President George Washington in 1789 and ratified by 9 of the 13 states by the end of 1791) included a number of 12 amendments, of the 17 initially proposed by the Congress. Ten of these were approved, and they were made known to all under the name of Bill of Rights.
The reason for further legal provisions was the fact that anti-federalists had constantly attacked the Constitution as being too vague; they also protested against the fact that it did not make any specific mention regarding the ways in which the state would be protected against tyranny. Civil rights, such as the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, the freedom of assembly, or the right to a fair and speedy trial had not been included in the original text of the Constitution.
The American Revolution has a number of specific features in comparison with the revolutions which took place in Europe, starting with the end of the 18th century: it was positive in motivation and goals; it did not justify mass killing of the enemy according to ideological reasons (as did the French Revolution of 1789); it opened the way for a modern understanding of human relationships and of the laws governing them; it consecrated the role of a Constitution which should be observed by all; it started from the assumption that “all men are born equal”.

9. Industrial revolution
The beginnings of the industrial revolution are closely linked to Britain under the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901).
It was a time of inventions, reforms and deep social changes. Specific laws were passed with the purpose of implementing political and social reform.
The success of the 1851 World Fair (the first world exhibition of manufactured goods) resulted in Victoria’s reign being called the “Victorian Age”. During her reign, Britain became the greatest colonial power in the world, and statistics estimate that one in four inhabitants of any part of the world was a British subject. Victoria herself was declared Empress of India – a title which remained linked to the British Crown until the emancipation of the Indian sub-continent, followed by the formation of newly-independent states India and Pakistan in the late 1920s.
In the same period, Britain also became the first urban industrial society in history. Urbanization in Britain meant that large numbers of people moved from rural to urban areas due to industrialization (by 1900 80% of the population lived in cities). This deep social change determined an increased importance of the bourgeoisie, at the expense of aristocratic landlords; thus, Britain completed its shift from a feudal system to a modern, industrialized society.
Great inventions paved the way for further modernization: 1825 – the first steam locomotive (made by George Stephenson, who called it a “rocket”). The development of faster transport means (railways) led to an increase of exchanges of goods and of individual consumption.
Britain was also the country which saw the beginnings of the Trade Unions (inspired from the mediaeval guilds) – which were legalized in 1871; by 1890 there were 1.5 M trade union members – a foundation for the modern Labour Party.
A major trend in Victorian Britain was the importance of learning under state guidance: after 1870 education became compulsory for all children.

10. Women’s rights (the Suffragette movement)
It took a long time until women’s working capacities were fully recognised and trusted. The trained English nurses of the Boer War (1899-1902) were those who called everyone’s attention to the fact that women were deprived of many well deserved rights – among which, the right to vote.
Although a formal military nursing service did not exist in the army prior to the latter half of the 19th century, recent extensive research suggests that nursing care was provided to the army during the reign of Elizabeth 1st and the English Civil War. During the 18th century military hospitals had Matrons and nurses working in them but the training and standard of care was not of a high standard.
At the same time, in the US, during the early nineteenth century, women participated in numerous efforts to improve women's status, defend their interests, and increase their rights. Educators, such as Emma Willard, Mary Lyon, and Catharine Beecher, promoted advanced training for women in female academies and seminaries. Thousands of women in the 1830s and 1840s joined moral reform societies, organized especially in protest of women being used for prostitution.
The first women's rights meeting, at Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848, capitalized on women's antislavery experience. Called by Mott and Stanton, who had met at an 1840 antislavery convention in London, and some Quaker friends, the convention attracted about three hundred women and men. One-third of the participants signed a "Declaration of Sentiments," modelled on the Declaration of Independence.
In 1919, the US Congress at last approved woman suffrage and in August 1920, the Nineteenth Amendment (women’s right to vote) was ratified by the states.

The word "suffragette" was first used to describe women campaigning for the right to vote in an article in a British newspaper in 1906.
At the time, only two-thirds of the male population could vote.
Those who could not vote included:
- men who did not own property or pay at least £10/year in rent- servants who lived with their employers- criminals- “lunatics” (individuals who were officially deemed crazy)
British women and men had been arguing for both universal and women’s suffrage since the 1860s. The movement for women’s votes accelerated when Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters Christabel and Sylvia founded the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) in 1903 – a more radical organization than some of the earlier ones fighting for suffrage. Its slogan was "Deeds Not Words".
On 2 July 1928, a law was passed allowing all women over the age of 21 to vote. Many people said that the Act was passed as a reward for women’s efforts during the war rather than anything the suffragettes did.

[1] See Quinn’s article about the “Glorious Revolution” at
[2] Ibidem, page 5
[3] Neal, Larry. "How it All Began: the Monetary and Financial Architecture of Europe during the First Global Capital Markets, 1648-1815." Financial History Review 7 (2000): 117-40
[4] For more details about the US law, see Law of the United States, in Wikipedia, the free Encyclopaedia

vineri, 18 ianuarie 2008

Preston- churchmen’s residence, celebrations’s town

· Introduction

I’ve chosen Preston because it’s not an average town that you hear talking about every day as many others in UK: London, Liverpool, Manchester. It’s an unheard of, a hidden one, but, in my opinion, non of the less important. In fact, Preston takes a great pride in its people and celebrates its cultural diversity with an all year round events programme.
For example, the unique Easter Egg Rolling event, which many may consider excentric, but gives Preston a certain charm.Other examples: the colourful Caribbean Carnival and the Preston Mela, Festival of South Asian Culture.

· Short description

Located on the River Ribble, like an young child, Preston is a new town, receiving the status of a city in 2002, becoming England's 50th city in the 50th year of Queen Elizabeth II's reign, therefore it’s importancy.
Besides this, Preston has a strong Christian (particularly Catholic) history and tradition. The word Preston derived from 'Priests town' and the Lamb on the city emblem is a Biblical image of Jesus Christ. It’s certainly true that we can not find any other city with a Biblical image of Jesus Christ as its emblem which hosts so many celebrations, events and has a such vibrante night life.

· History

Preston in times past
Preston was a borough, market-town and parish situated to the north of the river Ribble; and is said to have risen from the ruins of an ancient city, called Ribchester (which is now an inconsiderable village in the neighbourhood), and to take its name, Priest-town,being the residence of considerable numbers of churchmen.
During the history, Preston’s architecture changed considerably.
Firstly, Preston was established as a port at the head of the estuary of the River Ribble. It became important from Roman times as a river crossing and rich from the weaving of wool in the Middle Ages.
John Horrocks established the first cotton mill in Preston in 1786. The first railway in the town was built in 1803 to connect the southern and northern sections of the Lancaster Canal. This was followed by a short railway between the quarries of Longridge to Preston.
Preston had been first represented in Parliament in 1295. Unlike most boroughs, the right to vote in parliamentary elections had been granted to all inhabitants of the town.
Preston continued to develop and in 1838 the National Union Railway linked Preston to London, Liverpool and Manchester. These lines were eventually obtained by the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway. This increased economic activity and between 1801 and 1901, the population of Preston increased from 14,000 to 115,000.
Secondly, a specific characteristic is the Guild Merchant. Every 20th year a guild merchant, or kind of jubilee, is held here, which begins in the last week of August, and formerly continued a month. The right to hold a Guild Merchant was conferred upon the Burgesses of Preston by a charter of 1179. Such a celebration had been held from time to time, but at the one in 1328 it was decreed that the Guild should be held every twenty years. There were breaks in this pattern for various reasons, but an unbroken series of them were held from 1542 to 1922. The 400 year sequence was broken due to World War II, but resumed in 1952. Therefore the expression '(Once) every Preston Guild', meaning 'very infrequently', has passed into fairly common use, especially in Lancashire.
The guild-hall, a handsome building, built of brick, stands in the centre of the town, near the Market-place, and fronts Fishergate, containing a news-room and council-chamber, together with the court-room for trying causes cognizable in the town, and used as the husting for the purpose of receiving votes for electing members of parliament; the new cupola is built of freestone, and is a superior piece of architecture, surmounting a pedestal, which supports its massy head, consisting of four Ionic pilasters at each angle; upon the base, between the pilasters, are laticed windows, formed with mouldings, after the Norman style, with round heads; and above this, next the cornice, a clock appears, with four dials facing the four cardinal points; the cap of the cupola is mounted by a vane of gilt-work, representing the figure of a lamb couchant.
On another hand, there is an astonishing diversity of public structures. The public structures devoted to the purposes of religious worship are, the ancient church of St. Johns (formerly St.Wilfrids), which is a vicarage, in the patronage of Sir Henry Philip Hoghton, and incumbency of the Rev. Roger Carus Wilson; St. Georges chapel, the present minister of which is the Rev. R. Harris; Trinity church, in the incumbency of the Rev. Thomas Raven; St. Peters, the Rev. R. Henry; and St. Pauls, the Rev. B. Russell. There are several societies in Preston for promoting religion, and affording relief to the poor both in age and sickness; amongst these may be included Bible, tract, and missionary societies; dispensaries, alms-houses, a benevolent society; several provident institutions or benefit societies.
The charitable institutions for the promotion of education are, the free grammar-school, an ancient foundation, under the patronage of the corporation; the blue-coat school, national school, catholic school, methodist school, and various Sunday-schools; the latter excellent establishments educating upwards of 3,000 children.

· Preston Today

From a town which promoted religion, with such a representative name („Priest-town”) today it became the administrative, commercial, industrial and cultural centre of Lancashire; there is also a wide range of educational and leisure opportunities and facilities. The University of Central Lancashire based in the centre of Preston is now an important feature of the town with over 15,000 students and now probably the biggest employer in the town.
The town has a wonderful collection of art and sculptures housed in the magnificent Harris Museum & Art Gallery building of Greek Revival architecture.
There is a large selection of restaurants with international cuisine, pubs, clubs, entertainment venues and night-life. There is the towns entertainment centre, the Guild Hall & Charter Theatre which is home to major events, concerts and theatre productions. There are two multi-screen cinemas, leisure centres, golf clubs, museums, Preston North End football club, Preston Grasshoppers Rugby football club and many more attractions, so there is always something of interest for folk day or night.

· Industrial Revolution

Half a century ago Preston could not be noted as a manufacturing town, and for ages previous it was more remarkable for the residence of independent persons, and its claims to gentility, than to the production of articles deemed so essentially necessary to adorn the rich and clothe all ranks. The rapid strides of science and art, rendered subservient to machinery and manufactures in general, have of late years overtaken and included Preston amongst the manufacturing towns of Lancashire: the cotton-trade is now carried on to a very considerable extent; and although it labours under the disadvantage of being at a material distance from the coal-mines, yet the central situation of the town, and the united advantages of river and canal navigation, joining with the skill, capital and enterprize of the principal manufactuers, have placed Preston in a more conspicuous and elevated point of view, than at the period when trade was only carried on within it for local convenience. With the aid of spring tides, which flow higher than the bridge at Wolton, vessels of 150 tons burden can navigate the Ribble as far as the quay at Preston-marsh; but this river is capable of much improvement. In the Ribble is a very ancient fishery, belonging to the borough of Preston, within the boundary of its jurisdiction; and it is famous for salmon, smelts, plaice and eels.
The principal market-place is a spacious well paved square, in the centre of which is an obelisk, surmounted by a large glass vase, lighted at night with gas, which illuminates the whole area. The chief market is held on Saturday; but there are also markets on Wednesday and Friday, for fish, butter and vegetables.
However, the 19th century saw a transformation in Preston from a small market town to a much larger industrial one, as the innovations of the latter half of the previous century such as Richard Arkwright's water frame (invented in Preston) brought cotton mills to many northern English towns. With industrialisation came examples of both oppression and enlightenment.
The town's forward-looking spirit is typified by it being the first English town outside London to be lit by gas. The Preston Gas Company was established in 1815 by, amongst others, a Catholic priest: Fr. Joseph "Daddy" Dunn of the Society of Jesus.
The more oppressive side of industrialisation was seen on Saturday 13 August 1842, when a group of cotton workers demonstrated against the poor conditions in the town's mills. The Riot Act was read and armed troops corralled the demonstrators in front of the Corn Exchange on Lune Street. Shots were fired and four of the demonstrators were killed. A commemorative sculpture now stands on the spot (although the soldiers and demonstrators represented are facing the wrong way). In the 1850s, Karl Marx visited Preston and later described the town as "the next St. Petersburg".
Preston was one of only a few industrial towns in Lancashire to have a functioning corporation (local council) in 1835, its charter dating to 1685, and was reformed as a municipal borough by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835. It became a county borough under the Local Government Act 1888. In 1974, county boroughs were abolished, and it became the larger part of the new non-metropolitan district of Preston in Lancashire, also including Fulwood, Lancashire and part of Preston Rural District.

· Notable people from Preston

To proove it’s interest for culture and importance of the education, Preston gave many notable people to the world.
Heres’s a list with some of the most famous names in Preston’s history:
· Richard Arkwright (1732–1792) — inventor of the water frame that kick-started the textile industry in the late 18th century
· Professor Sir George Grenfell Baines, OBE (1908–2003) — Architect, pioneer of multi-disciplinary design and founder of the Building Design Partnership
· Kenny Baker (born 1934) — an actor who plays R2D2 in Star Wars.
· Roy Barraclough (born 1935) — Actor from Coronation Street
· Stephen Barton (born 1982) — Noted film composer and protege of Harry Gregson-Williams
· Eddie Calvert (1922–1978) — Trumpeter, "The Man With the Golden Horn"
· Gregory Doran (born 1958) — Associate Director, Royal Shakespeare Company.

· John Doyle (born 1979) Flugel Horn for the world Famous Black Dyke band, and widely regarded as the finest Flugel Horn Player in the world.
· Aaron Dore (born 1991) Proud Professional Signature & LP Designer, Tutorial & PSD Packs Creator Known Web-Wide.
· Paul Englishby — film and theater composer
· Sir Tom Finney (born 1922) — Footballer
· Andrew Flintoff (born 1977) — cricketer
· Zara Glover (born 1982) — International Ten-pin Bowler
· James Hebblethwaite (1857–1921) — poet
· John Inman (1935–2007) — Comedy actor and drag artiste
· Ian Kirkham — saxophone player, Simply Red.
· Mark Lawrenson (born 1957) — Footballer turned football pundit
· Joseph Livesey (1794–1884) — Social reformer and pioneer of the Temperance movement in the 19th century
· Ian McCulloch (born 1971) — snooker player currently in the top 16 of the world rankings
· Marie Niven (b.1964) famous mainly for being a famous maths teacher at Hutton Grammar School.
· Nick Park (born 1958) — animator famous mainly for the Wallace and Gromit and Chicken Run claymation animation classics.
· Edith Rigby (1872–1948) — Suffragette
· Samuel Ryder (1858–1936) — founder of the Ryder Cup Golf Competition
· Dr Alison Shaw, Ph.D. (born 1975) — publisher of "A general approach for heterologous membrane protein expression in Escherichia coli: the uncoupling protein, UCP1, as an example", aka "the hedgehog protein one" ([1])
· Chris Scott (born 1991) Keyboard player with Odd Socks, Lancaster based fourth wave Ska band.
· A.J.P. Taylor (1906–1990) — historian.
· Jessica Taylor (born 1980) singer with Liberty X
· Francis Thompson (1859–1907) — poet
· John Thomson (born 1969) — actor, Men Behaving Badly
· Stanley Yates (born 1958) — classical guitarist and music scholar

· Buildings and structures in PrestonCulturally, Preston has much to be proud about including - the Grade I listed Harris Museum and Art Gallery, Preston Guild Hall, Museum of Lancashire, the County Records Office and Library, splendid Victorian Parks & Gardens, as well as the National Football Museum and St Walburge's Church.
St Walburge's Church is a Roman Catholic church located in Preston, Lancashire, England. It is dedicated to Saint Walpurga and is a Grade I listed building.

It is one of the tallest buildings of any type in Lancashire, with a steeple or spire of 309 feet (94 m). It is the fifth-tallest church in the United Kingdom, after Salisbury Cathedral, St Paul's Cathedral, Liverpool Cathedral and Norwich Cathedral, and therefore the tallest church that is not a cathedral.
The steeple is constructed from limestone sleepers which originally carried the nearby Preston to Longridge railway line, giving the spire a red tint during sunset. The steeple was the last to be worked upon by steeplejack and TV personality Fred Dibnah.
The architect was Joseph Hansom. Work began on the construction of the church in May 1850, and it was completed for an opening ceremony on August 3, 1854.
The church resembles a cathedral and holds a commanding position over Preston city. The tower contains a single bell of 30 Cwt (1.5 Tonnes) cast by Mears and Stainbank of Whitechapel. This is thought to be the heaviest swinging bell in Lancashire.
The Harris Museum, Art Gallery & Preston Free Public Library is a Grade I listed museum building in Preston and has the largest gallery space in Lancashire, England. The collections include important local history and archaeology collections, highlights of which are displayed in the Story of Preston, which gives a historical account of the city. There is also a fine art collection including work by Stanley Spencer, Lucian Freud, Ivon Hitchens and Graham Sutherland and a decorative art collection that holds the largest scent bottle collection in the country. In addition there is a varied contemporary art programme of national and international artists, touring shows and in-house exhibitions.
Amongst the fine works of art and historical artefacts there is a nationally important prehistoric elk skeleton, known as the Poulton Elk.
A Foucault pendulum hangs in the central foyer, through all the floors, over a butterfly-shaped plate marked with the hours of the day. As a result of the rotation of the Earth, this functions as a decorative and reasonably-accurate clock.
This monumental building also houses Preston City's Free Public Library, which is run by Lancashire County Council, and the building was initially built with funds donated by Edmund Robert Harris.

· Conclusion: Preston's history dates back to the Doomsday Book and to 1179 with the granting of the Charter, which gave the right to hold a Guild Merchant every 20 years. The "Once in a Preston Guild" tradition continues to this day and we look forward to the next in 2012. Preston, the administrative capital of Lancashire, is the largest and most important commercial centre in the county.
Preston's colourful history has shaped today's town.The future in the town of Preston is looking very good because of its transport system and its shopping centres.


Limba romana este o limba vorbita de aproximativ 28 de milioane de oameni, cu origine romanica si foarte similara cu italiana, franceza, portugheza sau spaniola.
Istoria ei poate fi urmarita pe parcursul unor anumite perioade istorice pe care le-a traversat. Spre exemplu, cu 2000 de ani in urma, teritoriul de astăzi al Romaniei a fost locuit de daci ale caror preocupari includeau agricultura, viticultura sau crescutul animalelor. Au ramas din acea perioada cateva cuvinte legate de corpul omenesc si relatiile familiale(cap, mana, picior). Insa dacii nu sunt unicii stramosi ai romanilor si a limbii romane. Romanii au jucat un rol important in istoria si dezvoltarea limbii romane atunci cand i-au asimilat pe daci incetul cu incetul.
Un al exemplu este cel al slavilor care de-a lungul secolelor VII, VIII şi IX, slavii au venit pe teritoriul actualei Romanii. Limba lor a influentat limba romana dar slavii au invatat si ei limba latina. Limba slava a influentat limba romana mult in pronuntie ceea ce se vede mai clar in iodizarea sau palatizarea lui "e" la inceputul cuvintelor ca "el", "ea" sau "este".
In prezent, limba romana este foarte influentata de franceza si de engleza. Totusi, in ciuda influentelor primite, limba romana si-a pastrat originea romanica.

Vocabularul(lexicul) limbii romane este format din: vocabularul fundamental si masa vocabularului.
Vocabularul fundamental cuprinde circa 1500 de cuvinte din cele mai uzuale: numele unor obiecte si actiuni foarte importante(casa, masa), numele unor alimente, numele partilor corpului omenesc(mana, picior), numele unor culori importante, numele unor familii si ale unor rude, cele mai bine reprezentate in vocabular fiind cuvintele de legatura, pronumele, numeralele.
Masa vocabularului cuprinde 90% din totalitatea cuvintelor existente in limba romana: arhaisme(chezasie=garantie), regionalisme(cucuruz=porumb), termeni de argou(polonic=bucatar), termeni de jargon(merci). Este foarte bine stiut faptul ca limba este in continua schimbare, schimbare aparuta in primul rand datorita dezvoltarii tehnologice si economice. Fiecare epoca a avut neologismele sale: slavonisme (cuvinte intrate in limba in special prin traducerile de carti bisericesti), grecisme, turcisme (in perioada fanariota), ungurisme (mai ales in perioada stapanirii austro-ungare in Transilvania), frantuzisme (mai ales în epoca moderna), anglicisme si americanisme mai recent.

Luand drept exemplu influenta limbii engleze, primul fapt demn de mentionat este ca vorbim de un fenomen international (nu numai european, ci si mondial). Imprumutul masiv de termeni anglo-americani s-a manifestat dupa al doilea razboi mondial in majoritatea limbilor europene si nu numai.Vorbim de un fenomen explicabil mai ales prin progresul anumitor domenii ale tehnicii. Trebuie subliniat faptul ca aceste imprumuturi si influente sunt necesare, chiar pozitive, atata timp cat nu devin exagerate.
Imprumutul de termeni anglo-americani reprezinta un fenomen desfasurat in limba noastra mai ales in ultimele decenii. E o patrundere masiva, care continua sa creasca intr-un ritm accelerat, dar care isi gaseste motivatia in necesitatea de a desemna anumite realitati extralingvistice. Aceste realitati au uneori nevoie de termeni neechivoci(in special termeni tehnici ce necesita precizie) pentru a fi desemnate.
Un rol foarte important in difuzarea inovatiilor lexicale il are presa, care, pe langa faptul ca este considerata „a patra putere in stat”, este si un important factor cultural-educativ. Prin larga sa audienta, prin autoritatea pe care o impune, presa scrisa si audio-vizuala ia parte la „educarea lingvistica” a publicului, dar si la diversificarea si difuzarea inovatiilor lexicale.
Aspectele influentei engleze in limba romana poate fi abordata din perspectiva normativa: pe de o parte norma socio-culturala, iar pe de alta parte norma lingvistica.
Norma socio-culturala reglementeaza motivatia si functia imprumutului in raport cu specificul unui anumit stil sau registru al limbii. Conform celor doua categorii stabilite de Sextil Puscariu, anglicanismele care apar in presa actuala se pot incadra in: „necesare” sau „de lux”.
1. Imprumuturile necesare sunt acele cuvinte, sintagme sau unitati frazeologice care nu au un corespondent in limba romana sau care prezinta unele avantaje in raport cu termenul autohton. In acest sens, anglicismele necesare au avantajul preciziei, al brevilocventei si nu in ultimul rand al circulatiei internationale. Ele sunt motivate de noutatea referentului. In acelasi timp, luam in calcul si o motivare denotativa si, chiar una conotativa (stilistica), in anumite situatii, chiar daca mai putine la numar.
Anglicismele denotative nu au, in general, echivalente in limba romană, intrucat denumesc realitati aparute recent in diferite domenii ale culturii materiale si spirituale.
2. Anglicismele ,,de lux” sunt imprumuturi inutile, care tin de tendinta de ordin subiectiv a unor categorii sociale de a se individualiza lingvistic in acest mod. Asemenea termeni nu fac decat sa dubleze cuvine romanesti, fara a aduce informatii suplimentare.


Terminologia economica, financiara, comerciala si a profesoriilor
-Baby-sitter, cu sensul generic de „ingrijitor de copii”, apare in anunturile publicitare cu un sens specializat ce include „tehnici pentru ingrijirea, supravegherea si educarea copiilor prescolari si scolari”.
-Broker si dealer – intermediar.
-Drive-in – cinema, restaurant sau alt local care ofera servicii clientilor fara ca acestia sa-si paraseasca masinile, in timpul unei stiri fiind numit si „Fast Food la volan”.
-Duty-free – apare ca adjectiv avand semnificatia de marfuri cumparate pe aeroporturi, nave sau in avion, la preturi mici, fiind scutite de taxe. In presa actuala poate aparea si ca substantiv: „taxe de infiintare a unui duty-free”.
-Non-profit – care nu cauta sa obtina profit.
-Rating – categorie, clasificare, clasa, rang.
-Tour-operator – companie care organizeaza si vinde vacante prin intermediul unui agent turistic.
-Voucher – document care poate fi folosi, in loc de bani, pentru a plati ceva.

Terminologia tehnica
-Airbag – perna gonflabila destinata sa protejeze, in caz de ciocnire, pasagerii de pe locurile din fata ale unui automobil.
-Hard si soft – termeni din cibernetica.
-Lap-top – calculator portabil.
-Screening – examen medical realizat cu raze X.
- A scana – verbul din engleza „to scan”(a examina ceva in detaliu, cu ajutorul unui fascicul de raze X).
-Shipping – expediere de marfuri cu ajutorul navelor.
-Site – spatiu, pagina de Internet.
-Walkman – casetofon portabil cu casti, la care pot fi ascultate din mers inregistrari muzicale.

Termeni din domeniul comunicatiilor si presei
-Banner – fasie lunga de panza pe care este scris un mesaj, un slogan.
-Clip – scurt film publicitar difuzat la televizor.
-Hot line – linie telefonica prin care publicul poate contacta politia sau alte servicii pentru a da informatii despre anumite situatii speciale.

Termeni din domeniul invatamantului si cercetarii
-Curriculum – programa scolara pentru o anumita disciplina.
-Grant – suma de bani nerambursabila acordata unui cercetator individual, echipe de cercetare, institut de cercetare pentru realizarea, intr-o perioada de timp determinata, a unei activitati de cercetare stiintifica sau a unei activitati conexe activitatii stiintifice.
-Master – studii aprofundate.

Terminologia sportiva
-Snow-board - sportul si suportul cu ajutorul caruia este practicat.
-Skateboard – sportul practicat cu ajutorul plansei pe role.
-Skate – patinaj pe role.
-Canyoning – sport extrem constand in coborarea pe vaile unor torenti din munti.

Domeniul vietii mondene
-Body – obiect de lenjerie feminina.
-Bodypainting – pictura pe corp.
-Fan club – un grup organizat, ai carui membri admira aceeasi persoana.
-Grill – gratar.
-Roll on – recipient de uz cosmetic, medical cu bila.
-Stripper – persoana care castiga bani facand striptease.
-High-life – elita.
-Party – petrecere.


Termeni din domeniul economic-financiar, comercial si al profesiilor
-Advertisig - publicitate.
-Agreement – acord financiar, economic.
-Showroom – magazin de expozitie.

Termeni din domeniul comunicatiilor
-Briefing – conferinta de presa.
-Key – speaker – vorbitor principal.

Domeniul invatamantului
-Training –pregatire, instruire.
-Item – intrebare, punct dintr-un test.
-Visitig professor – profesor oaspete.

Domeniul artistic
-Band – orchestra, formatie muzicala.
-Evergreen – slagar.
-Performance – spectacol.
-Teleplay – piesa de teatru la TV.

Domeniul sportiv
-Draftat – transferat.
-Pole-position – pozitie de favorit intr-o competitie sportiva.
-Soccer – fotbal.

Domeniul vietii mondene
-Fashion – moda.
-Make-up – farduri.
-Modeling – meseria de manechin.

Domeniul gastronomiei
-Snaks – gustari.
-Steak – carne pentru friptura.

Desi anglicanismele sunt termeni neadaptati sau incomplet adaptati la sistemul limbii, studiile spcializate au pus in evidenta faptul ca, prin caracterul lor regulat si repetabil, pot fi considerate ca avand caracter de norma(fonetica, ortografica, morfologica).

1. Normele ortografice si ortoepice
Tendinta generala a limbii literare actuale este de a pastra imprumuturile din engleza intr-o forma cat mai apropiata de cea din limba sursa. Pastrarea aspectului din limba de origine reprezinta si o conditie a fortei de sugestie(presa si limbajul tinerilor).
In cazul revenirii la scrierea etimologica a unor imprumuturi vechi, perfect similare sub aspect fonetic si grafic reprezinta o dovada de snobism. Exemple clare intalnim in presa: „leaderul”, „meeting”.
Tot in presa actuala intalnim tendinta de imitare a manierei anglo-americane de scriere cu majuscule a cuvintelor din componenta titlurilor(exemplu: „Produse Lactate De Cea Mai Inalta Calitate”).
Probleme de scriere apar adesea in cazul scrierii compuselor englezesti cu sau fara cratima, dar si in utilizarea cratimei in cazul formelor articulare enclitic, flexionate sau derivate. Exemple:
-skateboard si skate-board
-work-shop si workshop
-punk-ist si punkist

2. Normele morfologice
O consecinta a patrunderii masive a cuvintelor din engleza ar putea fi „subminarea” caracterului flexionar al limbii romane prin cresterea numarului adjectivelor invariabile si stergerea granitelor dintre partile de vorbire.

3. Norma lexico-semantica
Definirea sensului imprumuturilor se face, in general, printr-un sinonim sau o expresie echivalenta romaneasca. Anglicanismul mai poate fi introdus in text dupa echivalentul sau romanesc sau, intr-o maniera jurnalistica, prin alternarea termenilor sinonime in titluri si subtitluri.
In asimilarea anglicanismelor putem intalni diferite capcane: „falsi prieteni”, constructii pleonastice, termeni prost formati.
„Falsii prieteni” desemneaza teremni straini cu forma identica sau foarte apropiata, dar cu semnificatie distincta fata de corespondentele lor romanesti.
-a acomoda si to accomodate(a asigura cuiva cazarea)
-agrement si agreement(acord)
-audienta si audience(public)
-a observa si to observe(a respecta o lege, o traditie)
-suport si support(sprijin financiar).

Necunoasterea sensului unor anglicanisme, neatentia, graba sau neglijenta genereaza in presa constructii pleonastice.
-„leadership-ul american la conducerea treburilor parlamantare” (alaturarea unui anglicanism si a echivalentului sau romanesc)
-mijloace mass-media
-hit de mare succes
-conducerea manageriala a unitatii

Termeni prost formati:
-hipermarket (inutil deoarece dubleaza sensul americanismului supermarket)

Parerea mea in ceea ce priveste aceasta avalansa a termenilor din limba engleza este ca nu trebuie sa ne lasam in totalitate influentati de mass- media preluand fara a cerceta termeni straini inutili. Bucurandu-se de un mare succes in fata publicului larg, mass-media pune in pericol limba romana prin introducerea de termeni inutili, fara nicio necesitate.
In concluzie, asistand la o dezvoltare tehnologica fara precedent, la o interculturalitate in plina dezvoltare, nemaiintalnita pana azi, facilitata de numeroasele canale de comunicare si raspandire a ideilor, a cuceririlor stiintifice, a modelelor comportamentale, a tiparelor culturale, atat oamenii de cultura, cat si cadrele didactice trebuie sa intervina pentru protejarea limbii romane. Un articol privitor la protejarea limbii romane a fost publicat in ziarul „Romania Libera” din 16 septembrie 2007 cu titlul „Proiect de rezolutie privind protejarea limbii romane, la Parlamentul European”. Indiferent de numele initiatorului, o lege pentru protejarea limbii române este, cu siguranta, necesară. Evident, imprumuturile vor continua sa intre in limba romana, insa suntem datori sa ne informam in ceea ce priveste utilitatea lor si sa ne limitam la cele ce faciliteaza relatiile dintre oameni pentru un schimb mai bun cultural, sa facem uz , nu abuz si sa NU le utilizam doar pentru ca sunt la moda.


„Broker Cluj a revenit la tranzactionare luni, cu un plus de 60% din actiuni incarcate in conturile investitorilor care au participat in vara la majorarea capitalului.”(„Romania Libera”- Sambata, 17 Noiembrie 2007)
„Pentru shopping combinat cu vacanta, romanii aleg sa mearga in Dubai, unde acum incepe sa se desfasoare Festivalul Shoppingului", a declarat Traian Badulescu, purtatorul de cuvant al Asociatiei Nationale a Agentiilor de Turism din Romania.”(„Romania Libera” -Marti, 08 Ianuarie 2008 )
"Eu si sotia mea, Tipper, vom dona intregul castig Aliantei pentru Protectia Climei, o organizatie non-profit dedicata schimbarii opiniei publice din SUA si din lume in privinta urgentei rezolvarii crizei climatului", a adaugat fostul vicepresedinte american.”(„Romania Libera” - Vineri, 12 Octombrie 2007)
„Visa le propune comerciantilor online o noua solutie de plata – 3V prepaid voucher – menita sa-i atraga in magazinele virtuale chiar si pe utilizatorii cei mai sceptici in ceea ce priveste siguranta tranzactiilor pe site-urile web.” („Romania Libera”- Luni, 08 Octombrie 2007)
„…airbag sofer si pasager, Cruise Control, capac mobil portbagaj, usa laterala culisanta dreapta vitrata, etc.”(„Romania Libera”- Luni, 17 Decembrie 2007 )
„In acest sens, Nokia N810 este echipat cu acelasi touchscreen cu diagonala de 10,5 cm (sau 4,1") si rezolutie de 800 x 430 pixeli ca si predecesorul sau, ceea ce face ca acest device sa nu fie unul de dimensiuni mici (72x128x14 mm si greutate de 226 grame). Insa cea mai interesanta imbunatatire adusa este adaugarea unui modul GPS si a unui set de harti preinstalate. Alt lucru important – dotarea cu o tastatura QWERTY hardware care va usura introducerea de text.”(„Romania Libera”- Marti, 23 Octombrie 2007)
„Laptop rezistent la socuri, PDA ignifug, player MP3 pentru surferi: produse de nisa, mai rare in magazine.”(„Evenimentul zilei”-12 Noiembrie 2007)
„Subsidiara din Romania a producatorului de echipament sportiv Puma va deschide, luna viitoare, primul showroom permanent de pe piata locala, in Bucuresti.” (Evenimentul zilei”-17 Noiembrie 2007)
„Doi nemteni, sot si sotie, din orasul Roman, si-au deschis, in urma cu doua saptamani, un pet-shop cu pasari si animale de companie.:(„Evenimentul zilei” -26 Noiembrie 2007 )
„Momentele tensionate s-au tinut lant vineri seara la show-ul "Dansez pentru tine", astfel ca, in intervalul orar 20.31-0.55, Pro TV a inregistrat pe publicul comercial cu varste cuprinse intre 18 si 49 de ani o medie de audienta de 8,7 puncte de rating si 28,3 cota de piata.
Postul lui Sarbu a fost lider detasat in prime-time, Antena 1 inregistrand abia 1,4 puncte de rating si o cota de piata de 4,4%.”(„Evenimentul zilei”-5 Noiembrie 2007 )
„Cei care sunt promoteri sau hostess pot lucra program normal, de luni pana vineri, sau numai in week-end.”(„Evenimentul zilei”- 25 Decembrie 2007)
„Angajatorii atrag studentii cu oferte part-time”(„Evenimentul zilei”-29 Octombrie 2007)

Adriana Stoichitoiu-Ichim – „Vocabularul limbii romane actuale – Dinamica, influente, creativitate”

L'un de mes sketch préféré de Mr. Bigard